BHM106 Botany And Herbal Manufacturing

BHM106 Botany And Herbal Manufacturing


Module 2.2

  1. Considering what you have learned about hydrotherapy please answer the following questions

a) List the instructions, including any cautions would you give to someone if prescribing a hot bath?

b) List three herbs that would be useful in treating conditions that require warmer and cooler temperature baths.  Please also add which condition each herb is useful in treating.

c) What is a Sitzbath (give a brief description) and list what is it useful in treating?

  1. Please draw a sketch describing photosynthesis. Your sketch should include the sun and a full plant structure. It must be labelled including the following; light energy source, oxygen output, carbon dioxide input, chloroplasts, water and nutrients. Please use arrows where necessary. Please take a picture of your sketch and post below.
  1. Root specialisation and modifications. Please use the table below to give a short description and provide examples of each root. (Please make sure you are referencing)

Root Type

Description (including function) Examples
Aerial roots
Buttress roots
Adventitious buds
Contractile roots
Parasitic roots


  1. Carefully dig up a Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) root and a Grass root system.  Note: to remove the dandelion without breaking the roots, hold it close to the ground and pull out at a 45-degree angle (not directly up). If you can’t dig up a dandelion please find an image online which you need to reference correctly adding it alongside your drawing of the plant parts.  and print.

a) Draw the two plants including their roots.

b) Label each image with the plant name using correct botanical names.

c) Identify and label the root structure.

d) Label which is the dicot and which is the monocot.

e) Take a picture of your drawing, upload and include it below. (if using an online image to assist with your drawing you must upload the image and reference correctly)

  1. Discuss the possible effect that growing conditions have on price, availability/supply and plant sustainability?
  2. What is the status of the plants below a– j? Including nay comments.  Use the information provided on United Plant Savers, https://www.unitedplantsavers.org/  For plants not on this list, then refer to the listing on The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: http://www.iucnredlist.org/search

This information would be best in a table format:

a) Hydrastis canadensis

b) Ulmus rubra

c) Berberis vulgaris

d) Chamaelirium luteum

e) Pulsatilla vulgaris

f) Plantago lanceolate

g) Sambucus nigra

h) Echinacea angustifolia

i) Piper methysticum

j) Solidago virgaurea

  1. For those plants listed as at risk, or to monitor, what could herbalists do to help secure the sustainability of the plant? Please use the information you have gained from question 6 to answer this question.
  2. Identify and describe the 4 main functions of roots. This can be done in a table to make it clear.
  1. Prepare the oxymel preparation and answer the following;

a) What were oxymels traditionally used for?

b) Why are Foeniculum vulgare  – Fennel and Carum carvi – Caraway seeds added?

c) What are the main constituents in garlic which make it useful in an oxymel?

d) What other herb(s) could be used in an oxymel? (give at least 3 examples using correct Botanical Names)

Reflective Learning

a) Personal reflection on what you have learned. Please answer this in your own words.

a) What did you enjoy the most from this learning experience and why?

b) What was new or interesting to you?

c) How has this learning experience helped your understanding of botany and herbal manufacturing?

Module 3.1

  1. Please continue with the Solvent Solubility Table.

Over the trimester you will be constructing a solvent solubility table.  Please continue your table here including it solubility/action and the constituent extracted.

Example format: Solvent Solubility Table


Solvent Actions (how does it affect the plant) / Solubility (is it useful as a solvent and why)

Constituents Extracted



  1. In order to make a herbal tincture (using dried herb) we need to consider the concentration (ratio) we wish to make, the ethanol and the water content. Using the information given please calculate the amount of ethanol and water (solvent proportion) needed to make the following dried herb tincture.  For the purpose of these calculations you can assume the ethanol strength is 96%.

Mentha piperita 1:6 using 60 grams of dried Mentha piperita (Peppermint)

Matricaria recutita 1:4 using 50 grams of dried Matricaria recutita (Chamomile)

Taraxacum officinalis fol. 1:5 using 100 grams of dried Taraxacum officinalis fol. (Dandelion leaf)

Melissa officinalis 1:6 using 25g grams of dried Melissa officinalis (Lemon Balm)

Calendula officinalis 1:4 using 25 grams of dried Calendula officinalis (Calendula) – this tincture will be for external use.

  1. Label the diagram with the following parts. Two of the parts won’t be needed.
  • Stem
  • Nodes
  • Internodes
  • Axil
  • Axillary bud
  • Bud scales
  • Terminal bud
  • Lenticels
  • Leaf scar

Please use this diagram.

  1. Examine a piece of fresh ginger, or if unable to obtain some, use an image online or in a book. (Please reference) Draw the ginger and label the following:

a) the fine scaly leaves

b) nodes

c) internodes

d) axillary bud

Take a picture of your drawing, upload and insert below.

Module 3.2

  1. Obtain some fresh lemon balm or mint, or use an image you sourced online or in a book.  You need a piece of stem with 2-3 nodes and leaves.

a) Draw your specimen and label the i) petiole, ii) lamina, iii) midrib and iv) leaf axil.

b) Name the leaf i) structure, ii) attachment and iii) arrangement of the leaves.

c) What is the Latin binomial for mint?

d)  What is the Latin binomial for lemon balm?

e) What type of leaf margin does your specimen have?

f) Is your plant a monocot or a dicot?

  1. Obtain a piece of fresh raspberry or rose plant, or use an image you sourced online or in a book.  (Please reference) You need a piece of stem with 2-3 nodes and leaves.

a) Draw your specimen and label the i) petiole, ii) lamina, iii) midrib, iv) leaf axil and v) stipule.

b) Name the leaf i) structure, ii) attachment and iii) arrangement of the leaves.

c) Write the Latin binomial for your plant underneath your drawing.

d) What type of venation does your specimen have?

  1. What are the advantages and disadvantages of pessaries and suppositories?
  2. What instruction would you give to someone using a pessary?
  1. For each of the herbs below please describe what makes the herb suitable to be used as an oil infusion?  What are some actions and what are the indications you could use this oil for? What part of the plant is used to make an infused oil? Which herbal medicine products on the market use this oil? *you are able to use online resources or a health food store to help with this question.  (Remember to check if the product contains and herbal extract or herbal infused oil)
  • Hypericum officinalis (St Johns Wort)
  • Verbascum thapsus (Mullein)
  • Calendula officinalis (Calendula)
  • Stellaria media (Chickweed)
  • Allium sativum (Garlic)

You may use the table provided as a template:

Hypericum officinalis Verbascum thapsus Calendula officinalis Stellaria media Allium sativum




Part of plant used
Herbal remedy Product


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