his Critical Thinking (CT) assignment builds on the assignments from Modules 4 and 6.

Write an Introduction based on the references identified in the Module 4 CT assignment and the annotated bibliography created in the Module 6 CT assignment. The Introduction should provide an overview, background, and explanation of the research topic you chose. Include an overview of your research question, what software might be used in your analysis, and ethical principles in research. Week 9’s module lecture provides guidance on writing introductions for research papers.

Your introduction should meet the following requirements:

Be three paragraphs in length (2 pages), not including the title or reference pages.
Be formatted according to APA writing guidelines.
Provide support for your statements with in-text citations from the scholarly articles you have gathered.
Follow APA writing standards.
Selecting sources

Student’s Name


Instructor’s name.

Institutional Affiliation

September 20, 2021.

Selecting sources

Patient safety culture.

Culture is the shared values and beliefs that interact with a system’s control mechanism and structures to produce behavioral norms. Culture impacts patient safety by determining appropriate practices and acting as an enabler and barrier to accepting behaviors that promote patient safety. It is crucial to understanding the components and factors affecting culture and evaluating a safety culture to developing strategies to create a culture committed to providing the safest care for patients. Patient safety remains a developmental challenge in many countries. Safety culture assessment helps health care organizations assess areas that need improvement and identify changes over time. The most effective strategy for improving the quality of care is influencing the perception of health care professionals towards patient safety.

Empirical studies.

The safety culture dimensions, including teamwork, management support for patient safety, and staffing, contribute to overall patient safety (Danielsson et al., 2017). The research involved a cross-sectional survey of Sweden healthcare professionals; the researchers analyzed the associations between patient safety and 12 culture dimensions. I chose this article because it contributes to nursing practice. Empowering nurses improve the overall patient safety culture (Amiri et al., 2018). This article is essential for this topic; the insights are important for healthcare leaders, managers, and decision-makers wishing to improve or create a patient safety culture in their organization.

The purpose of the article by (Alquwez et al., 2018) is to assess the patient safety culture of three general hospitals in Saudi Arabia, as perceived by nurses. This article provides valuable insights into the topic of interest. It analyses the perception of nurses on factors contributing to patient safety culture. The statistically significant factors contributing to patient safety culture include teamwork within units, organizational training on continuous improvement, communication and feedback about the error, staffing, and reporting frequency. According to (Carvalho et al., 2017), managerial actions contribute to patient safety culture weakness. The article provides insights that are important in preventing poor patient care.

The risk of harm to staff, patients, and organizations increases due to factors including a shortage of resources, lack of staff empowerment and professional competence, and unfavorable working conditions (Farokhzadian et al., 2018). Shortage of resources hinders the implementation of safety programs. This article is important to improving future healthcare culture and patient safety. There is a relationship between hospital staff perceptions of patient safety culture and the Consumer Reports Hospital Safety Score (Smith et al., 2017). The analysis lay a background groundwork for future research assessing the relationships between staff perceptions of patient safety culture and widely reported patient safety scores. The overall satisfaction with patient safety culture is highly influenced by perceptions of the management (Wu et al., 2019). I chose the article by (Wu et al., 2019) because the methods used for the study are appropriate and reliable.

Other studies.

According to (Lawati et al., 2018), incident reporting is crucial in achieving patient safety. Healthcare facilities should develop a culture of incident reporting which helps in tracking and investigating incidents. I chose the article because it is relevant to the topic; it provides information on developing a patient safety culture. Managers play an essential role in creating stronger patient safety cultures (Gutberg & Berta, 2017). The part of middle management includes facilitating communication throughout the organization. Improving patient safety culture is important to the quality and safety of medical services (Ali et al., 2018)


Ali, H., Ibrahem, S. Z., Al Mudaf, B., Al Fadalah, T., Jamal, D., & El-Jardali, F. (2018). Baseline assessment of patient safety culture in public hospitals in Kuwait. BMC Health Services Research, 18(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-018-2960-x

Alquwez, N., Cruz, J. P., Almoghairi, A. M., Al-otaibi, R. S., Almutairi, K. O., Alicante, J. G., & Colet, P. C. (2018). Nurses’ perceptions of patient safety culture in three hospitals in Saudi Arabia. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 50(4), 422-431. https://doi.org/10.1111/jnu.12394

Amiri, M., Khademian, Z., & Nikandish, R. (2018). The effect of nurse empowerment educational program on patient safety culture: A randomized controlled trial. BMC Medical Education, 18(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12909-018-1255-6

Carvalho, R. E., Arruda, L. P., Nascimento, N. K., Sampaio, R. L., Cavalcante, M. L., & Costa, A. C. (2017). Assessment of the culture of safety in public hospitals in Brazil. Revista Latino-Americana de Enfermagem, 25(0). https://doi.org/10.1590/1518-8345.1600.2849

Danielsson, M., Nilsen, P., Rutberg, H., & Årestedt, K. (2017). A national study of patient safety culture in hospitals in Sweden. Journal of Patient Safety, 15(4), 328-333. https://doi.org/10.1097/pts.0000000000000369

Farokhzadian, J., Dehghan Nayeri, N., & Borhani, F. (2018). The long way ahead to achieve an effective patient safety culture: Challenges perceived by nurses. BMC Health Services Research, 18(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-018-3467-1

Gutberg, J., & Berta, W. (2017). Understanding middle managers’ influence in implementing patient safety culture. BMC Health Services Research, 17(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-017-2533-4

Lawati, M. H., Dennis, S., Short, S. D., & Abdulhadi, N. N. (2018). Patient safety and safety culture in primary health care: A systematic review. BMC Family Practice, 19(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12875-018-0793-7

Smith, S. A., Yount, N., & Sorra, J. (2017). Exploring relationships between hospital patient safety culture and consumer reports safety scores. BMC Health Services Research, 17(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-017-2078-6

Wu, C., Wu, H., Lee, Y., & Huang, C. (2019). What attributes determine overall satisfaction in patient safety culture? An empirical study of the perceptions of hospital staff in Taiwan. Journal of Testing and Evaluation, 49(1), 20180713. https://doi.org/10.1520/jte20180713

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