Section A (500 words maximum excluding references)

Answer ONE of the following questions.

  1. Describe the main features of the PEACE and Reid model of investigative interviewing and explain what makes for an effective police interview.


  1. Discuss to what extent the Gudjonsson and Clark (1986) model of interrogative suggestibility explains how suspects come to be suggestible during police questioning.


  1. Discuss the difference between a compliant false confession and an internalised false confession, drawing upon the Gudjonsson et als (2014) model of false confessions.


Section B (1000 words maximum excluding references)

Answer EITHER Case 1 OR Case 2

Case 1

On 22nd February 1980, Erla was convicted of perjury in the Geirfinnur case, and sentenced to 3 years in prison.  Evidence shows that she was coerced by police into giving two false confessions whilst being interrogated. One of her false confessions was deemed an internalised false confession, whilst the other a compliant false confession. Psychological evaluations of Erla reveal that she scored high on compliance, high on state-suggestibility, low on self-esteem, and that she was prone to anxiety and emotional instability. Whilst in custody, she was interviewed for many hours by police using leading questions, was placed in solitary confinement between police interviews and exposed to a highly pressurised environment. 


(a)  Drawing upon appropriate theoretical knowledge and research, identify the relevant factors that could have increased Erlas vulnerability to both the compliant AND internalised false confession


(b)  Critically evaluate the extent to which the relevant factors may have contributed to her internalised false confession.


Case 2


In 1978, a young boy was stabbed to death whilst he was walking home from school.  George Long falsely confessed to the murder after a series of prolonged and intense police interviews. Georges conviction rested entirely on his (false) confession made to police.  However, after making the confessions, he retracted them while in the police station, explaining: I thought if I admitted it the Police would go easy on me, because the interviewer was scaring me.  When he was psychologically assessed by a Forensic Psychologist, he was found to have high-average IQ.  However, he was also prone to depression and anxiety and, at the time of the interview, these emotional problems and low self-esteem seemed to affect Georges performance.


(a)   Drawing upon appropriate theoretical knowledge and research, identify the relevant factors that could have increased Georges vulnerability whilst in custody.


(b)   Critically evaluate the extent to which the identified factors may have contributed to his false confession.

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