Statistics and Measurement in Kinesiology Final Project
Research Development Project:
To this point you have developed a basic research design (2×2 mixed design) and developed basic methods for your proposed research. The prior labs for literature review writing and methods have served as your rough draft for this project. Now you will create a details and professionally written literature review and methods section.
In total your final project should be 3-5 pages in length. Use Calibri text font size 11, 1 inch margins on all sides. DO NOT double space your entire document. There should be one double space between paragraphs and between sections.
About the Introduction/Background
When reading an introduction, be sure to evaluate the following:
1. Is the review of pertinent literature adequate?
2. Were any assertions supported with references?
3. Has the author correctly presented previous results of research studies?
4. Is the purpose of the study clearly stated?
5. Does the hypothesis logically follow from the introduction?
6. Are the hypotheses clearly stated and are they testable?
Generally an introduction will include 5 paragraphs and follow the basic outline below.
Paragraph 1 – This paragraph should be an introduction to the topic or the study. Typically, key terms or concepts are identified so the reader knows right away what to expect and the underlying problem or question that the research intends to address. The introduction should give the reader a broad idea about the research that will be discussed.
Paragraph 2-3– Reviews what previous studies have shown? This sections will generally compare and contrast the results from previous studies.
Paragraph 4 – In some way or another, this section or paragraph will infer why the research is relevant and important to science (WITHOUT specifically stating “this is important to science because…xyz). For example, is the idea novel or are the authors retesting an existing hypothesis because of gaps or limitation in previous research? Sometimes authors explain how the methods of a previous study is limited and they briefly explain how certain research is needed to “fill in the gaps.” This section should lead to the PURPOSE statement.
Paragraph 5 – The final paragraph might summarize the entire literature review in a sentence or two and then lead to the PURPOSE of your research. This should then lead to the HYPOTHESIS statement.
References (8 References minimum)
Citation guidelines should be consistent with the Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research “References” guidelines. If copy a citation from Google Scholar, please use the “Harvard Style.” Please see example below. (You must have a minimum of 8 sources that are numbered and listed in alphabetical order). Your in text citations must be consistent with the directions below.
All references must be alphabetized by surname of first author and numbered. References are cited in the text by numbers [e.g., (4,9)]. All references listed must be cited in the manuscript and referred to by number therein. For original investigations, please limit the number of references to fewer than 40 or explain why more are necessary. The Editorial Office reserves the right to ask authors to reduce the number of references in the manuscript. Please check references carefully for accuracy. Changes to references at the proof stage, especially changes affecting the numerical order in which they appear, will result in author revision fees.
Below are several examples of references:
Sanders, G.J., Roll, B. and Peacock, C.A., 2017. Maximum Distance and High- Speed Distance Demands by Position in NCAA Division I Collegiate Football Games. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 31(10), pp.2728-2733.
Lohman, TG. Advances in Body Composition Assessment. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 1992.
Chapter in an edited book
Yahara, ML. The shoulder. In: Clinical Orthopedic Physical Therapy. Richardson, JK and Iglarsh, ZA, eds. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1994. pp. 159-199. Software
Howard, A. Moments [software]. University of Queensland, 1992.
Viru, A, Viru, M, Harris, R, Oopik, V, Nurmekivi, A, Medijainen, L, and Timpmann, S. Performance capacity in middle-distance runners after enrichment of diet by creatine and creatine action on protein synthesis rate. In: Proceedings of the 2nd Maccabiah-Wingate International Congress of Sport and Coaching Sciences. Tenenbaum, G and Raz-Liebermann, T, eds. Netanya, Israel, Wingate Institute, 1993. pp. 22 – 30.
Bartholmew, SA. Plyometric and vertical jump training. Master’s thesis, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 1985.
Example from an introductory paragraph from the JSCR
About the Methods Section
The methods section is detailed synopsis of the entire project. The methods section should clearly articulate what was done, how measurements were recorded, what tools were used. The methods section should also include a detailed overview of the statistical analysis which can be found in the last paragraph of the methods sections. When reading the methods sections here a few aspects to consider.
1. Who were the participants/how were they selected/what were the genders and ethnicities?
– Why are the genders and ethnicities important?
2. What is the research design
– Mixed, within, between subjects, etc.?
3. Does the design allow for adequate testing of the hypothesis?
– Is there a high level reliability and validity of the methods and measurement tools?
4. Are there flaws, limitations, or gaps in materials or methods that could affect the validity of the study?
The Methods section for your project MUST mimic the following outline with the appropriate subheadings:
Experimental Approach to the Problem
This is where the author(s) show how their study design will be able to test the hypotheses developed in the introduction. When writing this section be sure to give some basic rationale for the choices made for the independent and dependent variables used in the study. Explain or state why your study is different than others (however, do not use verbiage like “our study is different because xyz”).
In this section, you will describe every aspect about the participants of your study. You will explain the sample population that you recruited for the study. Explain how you recruited the subjects and describe the geographical region/location in which the population came from (Please see examples from other research). Also, be sure to include that all your participants read and signed an informed consent prior to participation (We are assuming your study was passed by an Institutional Review Board (IRB) to ensure ethical procedures have been followed).
In this section, in detail explain what your participants did from the time they began the study to the time they completed the last trial/condition/test. This is where you explain all your conditions/time points (IV’s), measurement tools and DV’s.
This section will require multiple paragraphs.
Be very specific and clear in this section. The more detail the better. For example, if you participants/groups underwent an intervention (i.e., 8-week training intervention) be sure to explain what the intervention included. Did it include weight training? If so, explain the program. If the researcher manipulated conditions/groups, explain each condition/group clearly and use details. The reader of your research should be able to reproduce your entire study by reading the methods.
Be sure to explain how and when measurements were made and you must CITE the brand name/corporation, or validation study for the measurement tools that you use
“Throughout each 10-minute condition, heart rate and VO2 were recorded via indirect calorimetry (Parvo Medics, Truemax 2400) and a telemetry monitor (Polar Global, Kempele, Finland), respectively.”
Write and explain the design of your study. Then, at the end, include a 2 x 2 box design showing your independent variables, dependent variables, units of measurement for your DV’s, number of subjects in your study.
Condition/Time Point Condition/Time Point
• Describe all the Independent Variables
• Describe the Dependent Variable 1
• Describe Dependent Variable 2
Any work that results in an A (67-75 Points) will include the all of the following information and your work will be free of any grammar, typos, and poor sentence structure. Each misspelled word and/or typo will result in the reduction of 1 point with no limitation on 1 point reductions.
1. All directions are followed.
2. Literature review will contain at least 8 references.
3. Citations cited in the text and the bibliography at the end of the document is Harvard format without errors.
4. Literature review should follow the guidelines with proper paragraph and sentence structure.
5. Clear purpose statement.
6. Clear hypothesis.
7. Clear understanding of scientific literature articulated in paragraphs 2 and 3.
8. Compare and contrast previous research.
9. Methods must be clearly explained in full detail according to proper research design.
10. Methods must clearly show the 2×2 mixed design and what are the two different dependent variables.
11. Methods must detail how measurements are made.
12. Methods must include how, when and by whom data will be recorded.
13. Identify and explain the experimental approach to the problem.
Name in the top right corner
KIN 360 Final
Research Development Project
Experimental Approach to the Problem