The civil war in El Salvador lasted over a decade and took the lives of more than seventy thousand citizens. In January 1992, the leadership of the leftist Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front (FMLN) and the negotiating team of the Salvadoran government, joined at the last minute by President Alfredo Cristiani, signed a peace accord ending twelve years of civil war in El Salvador. Many analysts consider El Salvador’s transition from civil war to peace among the most successful implementations of a peace agreement in the post-Cold War period. Almost exactly ten years later to the day, on January 20, 2002, a group of scholars, politicians and civic leaders held a conference to evaluate in political and economic terms the years since the signing of the accord.  Given the nature of the Salvadorian transition, what have been the major achievements/setbacks in the post- Civil War years? How have the government, civic and business leaders dealt with the issues of political and economic exclusion? Compare and contrast the views of the THREE authors.




Read the Introduction (pg.  vii-ix) and work on the first THREE documents* to answer the essay question. 


*(Document 1)Ricardo Guillermo Castaneda, Consejo Empresarial Salvadoreño para el Desarrollo Sostenible 

(Document 2)Rubén Zamora, political leader and former Chair, Political Science Department,University of El Salvador José Miguel Cruz,  Universidad Centroamericana José Simeón Cañas, Instituto Universitario de Opinión Pública (IUDOP) 

(Document 3)Commentator,Terry Karl, Stanford University 

Panel Discussion