Question 1

Which of the following statements describes phase 4 of the action potential of cells in the sinoatrial (SA) node?


A. Potassium permeability is allowing the cell membrane to remain depolarized, and Ca2+ channel opens moving Ca2+ back into the cell.

B. The cells are capable of responding to a greater than normal stimulus before the resting membrane potential is reached.

C. A slow depolarization occurs when Na+ is transported out of the cell and K+ moves back in, resulting in resting membrane potential.

D. The fast sodium channels in the cellular membranes close, causing an abrupt decrease in intracellular positivity.

Question 2

A 31-year-old woman with a congenital heart defect reports episodes of light-headedness and syncope, with occasional palpitations. A resting electrocardiogram reveals sinus bradycardia, and she is suspected to have sick sinus syndrome. Which of the following diagnostic methods is the best choice to investigate the suspicion?


A. Signal-averaged ECG